June 22, 2015
The fall semester of 1956 was the first year for integration of undergraduate classes at UT’s main campus. Approximately 80 black students enrolled.
Former UT law student Heman Marion Sweatt reportedly took an overdose of sleeping pills (“This Week in Texas”): http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/01/25#page=8
Portrait of Willie Morris, Daily Texan editor at the time: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/02/22#page=6
James E. Titus, professor of government at UT, on interposition, the theory advanced by Gov. Allen Shivers and others, that the state could “interpose” between the federal government and the people of the state, for instance, to preserve segregation: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/03/07#page=3
Former UT faculty member J. Evetts Haley announces his candidacy for governor as a backer of interposition: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/03/07#page=6
UT student assembly passes a resolution welcoming blacks to campus; UT Inter-Co-Op Council votes to integrate its residences; only two UT dormitories will be integrated; Autherine Lucy considers applying to UT: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/03/14#page=8
Editorial endorsing Ralph Yarborough for governor recalls Price Daniel’s opposition to the admission of Heman Sweatt to the UT law school: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/07/11#page=2
Fagan Dickson, Austin attorney, publishes an article with the American Bar Association dealing with, among other cases, Sweatt V. Painter: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/09/05#page=4
Black undergraduates enter UT for the first time, but turmoil over integration of education continues elsewhere in the state: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/09/05#page=4
Editorial (scroll down) cites the UT Longhorns being beaten by the integrated team from the University of California: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/09/26#page=2
Attorney General John Ben Shepperd seeks to ban the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from operating in Texas ; its pledge to help Heman Sweatt with UT Law School fees is an issue. (Shepperd’s actions caused the NAACP to be almost dormant in the state for a time.): http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/10/03#page=4
Among evidence re the state’s prosecution of the NAACP, Thelma White purportedly regretting her decision to enroll at Texas Western (now UT-El Paso): http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/10/10#page=4
A cross is burned at the Texas Memorial Museum (Week in Texas). Austin police believe it is a fraternity prank: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1956/10/10#page=5
May 24, 2015
Links to articles from the 1955 issues of the Texas Observer regarding civil rights at the University of Texas. The whole page is referenced; scrolling down for the particular topic may be necessary:
Texas Commission on Race Relations meets in the Texas Union: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/02/21#page=8 http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/02/28#page=7
Thelma White sues in federal court to enter Texas Western (now University of Texas at El Paso): http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/04/04#page=5
Wayne H. Holtzman, UT psychology professor, studies UT students’ views about race in 1955: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/04/18#page=6
An article on school integration in Texas, including a plan of UT regents to set policy on this matter: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/06/27#page=5
An editorial and cartoon re desegregation at UT and elsewhere in Texas:http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/07/13#page=2
UT regents vote to desegregate all classes in September 1956: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/07/13#page=4
As part of an article on integration in Texas, Dean Arno Nowotny is quoted about housing for black students at UT: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/07/20#page=8
In the continuation of this long article on integration throughout the state (scroll to the next page), Huston-Tillotson halts its expansion plans because of UT’s pending undergraduate integration: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/07/27#page=4
A UT regent’s husband expresses support for the Citizens’ Council of Kilgore, a group advocating the preservation of school segregation: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1955/08/03#page=1
May 17, 2015
The Texas Observer now has all its issues online, but older issues are searchable only by date. For those searching for material on the University of Texas during the time of the stand-ins and similar activity, here is a guide to some Observer links.
Bombing of the University “Y” and formation of Students for Direct Action: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1960/12/02#page=3
Stand-ins begin at the Texas Theater: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1960/12/09#page=5
Stand-ins continue and spread to the Varsity Theater, gaining support from University of Texas faculty members and from Eleanor Roosevelt, former First Lady: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1960/12/30#page=1 (Continues on page 2, easy to scroll down)
Description of activities at the stand-ins: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1960/12/30#page=5
More faculty support, and stand-ins coordinated with national Lincoln’s Birthday demonstrations: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1961/01/14#page=8
Stand-ins reach a peak of 400, with confrontations: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1961/02/18#page=1 (scroll to continuation on page 3, also note page 3 article about other Lincoln’s Birthday demonstrations in Texas and nationally)
“Y” bombers placed on disciplinary probation: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1961/02/25#page=3
Demonstrations at theaters in Austin and elsewhere: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1961/03/04#page=3
A vigil by Booker T. Bonner: http://archives.texasobserver.org/issue/1961/03/18#page=3
December 30, 2014
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 1,800 times in 2014. If it were a cable car, it would take about 30 trips to carry that many people.
Click here to see the complete report.
March 9, 2014
Thanks to Manny Solon for the following:
Below is my typed copy of my letter that was published in the “Letters To The Editor” section of the June 6, 1961 edition of Look magazine under the heading “Atlanta’s Battle Continues”. [ It was the lead letter in the section. Their masthead stated ” NOW MORE THAN 6,700,000 CIRCULATION’, so it was my most read publication. :-).
A cousin of mine saw it in California and I or someone in my family saved the magazine. I received four replies addressed to me at the University Religious Council of which I was then president. Two signed letters were positive and supportive, two were “negative” and unsigned. My original was edited and I have no idea if somewhere I have the original which said more about our efforts.
The article I was commenting on was about the efforts of African American students in Atlanta to integrate various institutions including restaurants. There were eight letters published and they were on both sides.
Sorry I just can’t scan it and send it to you.
Atlanta’s Battle Continues
Look is to be congratulated on its
excellent article The Second Battle of
Atlanta [ April 25 ]. I would like to
point out that the “battle” against
segregation is also going on in Austin,
Texas. Here an organization of stu-
dents–Students for Direct Action– in-
situted a “stand-in” in December of
1960 in an effort to desegregate local
The situation here in is significantly
different from that of Atlanta, as it
has been predominantly white stu-
dents ( from the University of Texas )
who have been taking part in these
demonstrations…. In order for us
to live up to our beliefs in American
democracy and our religious teach-
ings, we who believe segregation is
wrong must do our part to end it.
May the students in Atlanta con-
tinue to be an example and inspira-
tion for others, both Negro and white,
throughout the United States.
University Religious Council
University of Texas
P.S. While typing this I noted – I think for the first time- that the six line letter below mine (also edited) Is “signed”
Martin Luther King, Jr.
March 8, 2014
Right now, a rough cut is on YouTube of a video People’s History of Texas will be releasing about the Stand-Ins.
February 25, 2014
You can find videos of Austin civil rights activists from the 1960s and 1970s here.
December 31, 2013
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 2,700 times in 2013. If it were a cable car, it would take about 45 trips to carry that many people.
Click here to see the complete report.
February 4, 2013
Louis Leman’s unsuccessful run for Students’ Association president inspired this entry in the “Commified Ads” section of the May 17, 1961 Dilly Texanne. (Click image to enlarge.)
February 2, 2013
This parody of Dave Helton’s Daily Texan film column “Scenically Speaking” refers to the Lutheran Student Association’s protest of the film Question 7 being shown at the segregated Texas Theater. (Click image to enlarge.) It appeared in the May 17, 1961 Dilly Texanne. Dave Crossley was editor of this issue of the Texanne.