I do not find many clippings on the stand-ins among my own papers, though they exist in archives in Austin. Dwonna Goldstone and Doug Rossinow referenced them in their books.

Since movie theaters would not sell tickets to blacks, protesters would line up — blacks attempting to buy tickets, white protesters explaining that they wanted to buy a ticket, but only if all Americans in the line could buy tickets. When refused, each protester would return to the end of the line.

The now-defunct theaters were the Varsity and the Texas. The Varsity was more resistant to integration; management of the Texas made it clear that the Texas would be integrated as soon as the Varsity was integrated, but the theater would not risk taking the first step.

The “Americans” phrase was perhaps because black foreign students could buy tickets. On at least one occasion, black UT students put on turbans and robes so they could go to a movie in an Austin theater.

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